Understanding the Framework
Table of Content
Acronyms and Abbreviations
Background and Overview
Thematic Area 1
Thematic Area 2
Thematic Area 3
Thematic Area 4
Thematic Area 5
Thematic Area 6
Hitherto, the only existing national document which attempted to capture the disaster management process was the National Disaster Response Plan (NDRP), approved by the FEC in 2001, as a guideline for responding to disaster in Nigeria. The NDRP is a response document that needs to be supported with a comprehensive framework that will serve as a foundation. Moreso, other issues like Risk Reduction, Prevention, Preparedness, Mitigation and Recovery were not captured by the NDRP. The National Disaster Management Framework (NDMF) has now been developed to serve as a foundation upon which all plans, policies and programmes and procedures for Disaster Management can be created, developed and sustained.
I understand that the preparation of the framework involved multi- stakeholder consultations and participation, from national to local level in order to guarantee ownership and committement of relevant players. This is expected to provide a transparent and inclusive framework encompassing the broad spectrum of disaster management; from Institutional Capacity, Coordination, Risk Assessment, Risk Reduction, Preparedness, Prevention, Mitigation, Response, Relief, Recovery through to information management, education and communication. It is expected therefore, that the framework would serve as the guideline for all stakeholders in executing their disaster management responsibilities and activities.
ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS
CDC – Centre for Disease Control and Prevention
CGG – Centre for Geology and Geodynamic
COREN – Council for the Regulation of Engineers in Nigeria
CPC – Centre for Pest Control
CSOs – Civil Society Organizations
DMP – Disaster Risk Management Plan
DMTs – Disaster Management Teams
DRP – Disaster Rehabilitation Plan
DRPs – Disaster Response Plans
DRR – Disaster Risk Reduction
DRUs – Disaster Reaction Units
ECC – Emergency Call Centers
EIA – Environmental Impact Assessment
EMV – Emergency Management Volunteers
EOC – Emergency Operations Center
ERT – Emergency Response Teams
EWS – Early Warning Systems
FAAN – Federal Airport Authority of Nigeria
FBOs – Faith Based Organizations
FCAA – Federal Civil Aviation Authority
FERMA – Federal Roads Maintenance Agency
FGN – Federal Government of Nigeria
FIIRO – Federal Institute of Industrial Research, Oshodi
FMA – Federal Ministry of Agriculture
FME&HUD – Federal Ministry of Environment, Housing and Urban Development
FMEnv – Federal Ministry of Environment
FMLAP – Federal Ministry of Labour and Productivity
FMT – Federal Ministry of Transport
FMWH – Federal Ministry of Works and Housing
FMWR – Federal Ministry of Water Resources
GIS – Geographic Information System
HSE – Health, Safety and Environment
ICS – Incident Command System
IDNDR – UN International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction
IECs – Information, Education and Communication
IPCR – Institute for Peace and Conflict Resolution
LEMA – Local Emergency Management Authority
LGA – Local Government Area
MDAs – Ministries, Departments and Agencies
MOU – Memorandum of Understanding
NAF – Nigeria Air Force
NAFDAC – National Agency for Food and Drugs Administration Control
NAMA – National Airspace Management Agency
NARICT – National Research Institute for Chemical Technology
NASENI – National Association for Science and Engineering Infrastructure
NASRDA – National Space Research Development Agency
NBC – National Broadcasting Commission
NCC – Nigerian Communication Commission
NCS – Nigerian Customs Service
NDLEA – National Drug Law Enforcement Agency
NDMF – National Disaster Management Framework
NDRP – National Disaster Response Plan
NEMA – National Emergency Management Agency
NERA – National Emergency Relief Agency
NESREA – National Environmental Standards & Regulatory Enforcement Agency
NGOs – Non-Governmental Organizations
NIMASA – Nigerian Maritime and Safety Agency
NIMET – Nigerian Meteorological Agency
NIMS – National Incident Management System
NIOMR – National Institute for Oceanography & Marine Research
NIOMR – National Institute for Oceanography and Marine Research
NIRCP – National Infrastructure Resuscitation Contingency Plan,
NIS – Nigerian Immigration Service
NITDA – National Information Technology Development Agency
NIWA – Nigerian Inland Waterways Agency
NN – Nigerian Navy
NNPC – Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation
NNRA – National Nuclear Regulatory Agency
NNRP – National Nuclear and Radiological Emergency Plan
NOA – National Orientation Agency
NOSDRA – National Oil Spill Detection and Response Agency
NPC – National Population Commission
NPF – Nigeria Police Force
NRC – Nigerian Railway Corporation
NRCS – Nigerian Red Cross Society
NSCDC – Nigeria Security and Civil Defence Corps
RMRDC – Raw Materials and Research Development Corporation
SAREEP – Search and Rescue and Epidemic Evacuation Plan
SEMA – State Emergency Management Agency
SON – Standard Organization of Nigeria
SOPs – Standard Operating Procedures
UNICEF – United Nations Children Fund
VCA – Vulnerability and Capacity Analysis
VRAM – Vulnerability Risk Assessment Mapping
WHO – World Health Organization
THEMATIC AREA 1
INSTITUTIONAL CAPACITY FOR DISASTER MANAGEMENT
This thematic area mandates the establishment of Disaster Management structures at all levels of governance (federal, states and local) in Nigeria. It centers on the principles of shared responsibility and the need to ensure proper integration and collaboration among stakeholders. There shall be National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA) at the Federal level, State Emergency Management Agency (SEMA) at the state level, and Local Emergency Management Authority (LEMA) at the local government level. This to a large extent shall strengthen the capabilities of Federal, State and Local Governments to reduce the likelihood and severity of disasters.
Every tier of government shall build the capacity of their emergency management institution to prepare for, prevent against, respond to and recover from disaster events. Federal State and Local Government, relevant Ministries, Departments and Agencies (MDAs), the military, police, Para-military and Civil Society Organisations (CSOs) shall develop their capacities in disaster management. Community institutions shall acquire disaster management capabilities as first responders, and Emergency Management Volunteers (EMV) shall be established to compliment the organised structures. Disaster Response Units (DRUs) shall be established in different military formations across the country to provide assistance to civil authority during emergencies.
This thematic area shall have the following objectives:
1. Establish functional disaster management institutions at all levels of governance to prepare for, prevent, mitigate, respond to and recover from disaster events in Nigeria.
2. Develop capacity of relevant institutions and stakeholders for effective and efficient disaster management in Nigeria.
2.2 Legislation for Disaster Management Structures in Nigeria.
Disaster Management structures shall be backed-up by an enabling law at all levels of government. This enabling law shall, amongst other things, specify roles and responsibilities, membership of its Councils, leadership tenure and other incidental or ancillary matters.
2.2.1 Roles of the Federal Government in Disaster Management
The Federal Government through the National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA) shall by this policy perform the following disaster management functions:
1. Formulate policy on all activities relating to disaster management in Nigeria;
2. Coordinate the activities of other stakeholders in Disaster Management.
3. Co-ordinate plans and programmes for efficient and effective response to disasters in the country;
4. Co-ordinate and promote research activities relating to disaster management in the country;
5. Monitor the state of preparedness of all organizations and agencies which may contribute to disaster management in Nigeria;
6. Collate data and report from relevant agencies to enhance forecasting, planning and field operations of disaster management;
7. Educate the public on disaster prevention and control measures;
8. Co-ordinate and facilitate the provision of necessary resources for search and rescue and other types of disaster curtailment activities;
9. Co-ordinate and support the activities of non-governmental organizations and development partners engaged in disaster management in the country.
10. Mobilize financial and technical resources from private sector, international non-governmental organisations and development partners for the purpose of disaster management in Nigeria;
11. Collect emergency relief materials or supplies from local, international and non-governmental agencies for distribution to the people affected by disaster;
12. Work closely with SEMA and LEMA to assess and monitor where necessary the distribution of relief materials to disaster survivors and Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs), refugees, and those adversely affected by mass deportation and repatriation from any other country as a result of crises, disasters or foreign policies;
13. Assist in the rehabilitation of survivors, IDPs and refugees where necessary, and those adversely affected by mass deportation and repatriation from any other country as a result of crises, disasters or foreign policies;
14. Prepare the annual budget for disaster management in Nigeria;
15. Process relief assistance to such countries that have experienced disaster as may be determined by the Federal Government of Nigeria from time to time;
16. Foster strong working relationship with all relevant National and International Agencies including the United Nations institutions for the reduction of disasters.
17. Facilitate the establishment of enabling legislation and monitor the activities of State Emergency Management Agency (SEMA) and Local Emergency Management Authority (LEMA).
18. Perform such other functions which, in the opinion of the Governing Council are required for the purpose of enhancing effective disaster management in Nigeria.
2.2.2 The Roles of State Governments in Disaster Management
All States in the Federation shall ensure the establishment of a body to be known as State Emergency Management Agency (SEMA) backed up by State Legislation.
The legislation, shall include provisions that will ensure that Local Governments in the State also establish authorities with similar functions. The state legislation shall among other things make provisions for the following:
1. Establish in the state, a body to be known as the State Emergency Management Agency, hereinafter referred to as SEMA
2. SEMA –
1. shall be a body corporate with perpetual succession
2. May sue and be sued in its corporate name.
1. There shall also be established for the management of SEMA, a Governing Council, hereinafter referred to as “the Council”. The Council shall consist of –
1. The Deputy Governor of the State, who shall be the Chairman,
2. The Secretary to the State Government,
One representative each from:-
1. The State Ministry of Agriculture
2. The State Ministry of Women Affairs and Social Development,
3. The State Ministry of Health,
4. The State Ministry of Information,
5. The State Ministry of Education,
6. The State Ministry of Works,
7. The State Ministry of Water Resources,
8. The State Fire Service,
9. The Federal Airport Authority of Nigeria in the State,
10. The State Ministry of Environment,
11. The State Ministry of Urban and Regional Planning/ Lands and Survey
12. The State Ministry of Justice
13. The State Ministry of Local Government and Chieftancy Affairs
14. The Disaster Response Unit (DRU) within the State/geo political zone
15. The Nigeria Police Force,
16. The Federal Road Safety Corps,
17. Directorate of Road Traffic Services
18. The Nigeria Security and Civil Defence Corps
19. The Nigerian Red Cross Society,
20. The State Ministry of Finance,
21. The Nigerian Maritime Administration and Safety Agency in coastal States,
22. National Oil Spill Detection and Response Agency (NOSDRA).
23. Such institutions/voluntary organization as may be determined from time to time by the Council, and
24. The Head of the State Emergency Management Agency as Member/Secretary.
d. The State Government through the State Emergency Management Agency (SEMA) shall by this policy perform the following disaster management functions:-
1. Formulate policy on all activities relating to disaster management in the state;
2. Co-ordinate plans and programmes for efficient and effective response to disasters in the State;
3. Co-ordinate and promote research activities relating to disaster management in the State;
4. Monitor and provide feedback to NEMA on the state of preparedness of all organizations and agencies which may contribute to disaster management within the State;
5. Collate data and report from relevant agencies in the state so as to enhance forecasting, planning and field operations of disaster management, and supply same to NEMA for planning purposes.
6. Educate the public on disaster prevention and control measures within the state;
7. Co-ordinate and facilitate the provision of necessary resources for search and rescue operations and other types of disaster curtailment activities within the state;
8. Mobilize support and resources from the National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA) when damages and need assessments are considered beyond the capacity of the state to respond,
9. Facilitate the enabling legislation for the establishment of Local Emergency Management Authority (LEMA) for all the Local Governments in the state.
10. Work closely with LEMA for distribution of relief materials to disaster vicitims;
11. Perform such other functions which, in the opinion of SEMA Governing Council are required for the purpose of enhancing disaster management in the state.
2.2.3 The Roles of Local Governments in Disaster Management
The Local Government shall put in place a legislation establishing a disaster management body to be known as the Local Emergency Management Authority, hereinafter referred to as LEMA.
(a) Shall be a body corporate with perpetual succession
(b) May sue and be sued in its corporate name.
There shall also be established for the management of LEMA, a Local Emergency Management Committee hereinafter referred to as “the Committee”.
The Committee shall consist of –
(i) The Vice – Chairman of the Local Government Council, who shall be the Chairman,
(ii) The Secretary to the Local Government,
(iii) Department of Works,
(iv) Department of Agriculture,
(v) Local Government Education Authority,
(vi) Department of Health,
(vii) Local Government Traditional Council,
(viii) Local Government Information Unit,
(ix) Department of Social Development and Mobilisation,
(x) Department of Physical Planning
(xi) A representative of the Disaster Response Unit (DRU), responsible for the Local
(xii) The Divisional Police Officer
(xiii) The Medical Director in charge of any government hospital within the local government or his equivalent;
One representative each from:-
(xiv) The Federal Road Safety Corps
(xv) The Nigeria Security and Civil Defence Corps
(xvi) The Nigerian Red Cross Society
(xvii) The Fire Service
(xviii) National Orientation Agency
(xix) Any such voluntary organization as may be determined from time to time; and
(xx) The Head of the Local Government Emergency Management Agency (LEMA) as Member/ Secretary.
The Local Government through the Local Emergency Management Authority (LEMA) shall by this policy perform the following disaster management functions:-
(i) Coordinate disaster management activities and respond to disaster events in Local Government area.
(ii) Monitor and provide feedback to SEMA on the status of preparedness of all organizations and agencies which may contribute to disaster management within the Local Government Area.
(iii) Collect and collate data on disaster and disaster risk areas in their respective Local Governments, and share same with SEMA.
(iv) Mobilize support and resources from the State Emergency Management Agency (SEMA) when damages and need assessments are considered beyond the capacity of the Local Government to respond.
(v) Establish and develop Disaster Management capacity of community structures.
2.2.4 Tenure, Remuneration and Conditions of Service of Disaster Management Institutions.
The Head of NEMA, shall hold office for four years in the first instance which may be renewed for another term of four years only, on such terms and conditions as may be specified in the letter of appointment. The tenure and conditions of service for heads of SEMA and LEMA shall be determined by the state Legislation.
2.3 Communities in Disaster Management.
The community structures (Neighbourhood associations, schools, Community Based Organisations (CBOs), Faith Based Organisations (FBOs), Non Governmental Organisations (NGOs) etc.) shall be established, properly sensitized, mobilized and empowered to actively participate in Disaster Management activities by LEMA, with support from SEMA and NEMA.
2.3.1 Roles of Communities in Disaster Management
Community structures shall perform the following functions in disaster management:-
1. Ensure commitment and preparedness of community members to disaster management.
2. Sensitize and build the capacity of communities that constitute disaster fronts in preparation for initial response to disaster threats.
3. Mobilize community resources and build community capacity and resilience to prepare for, respond to and mitigate the impact of disasters.
2.3.2 Community Strategies for Disaster Management
With technical support from LEMA, SEMA and NEMA, community structures shall adopt (among other things) the following disaster management strategies:
i. Ensure active participation in the preparation and implementation of Disaster Management Plans
ii. Create awareness on Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) and Early Warning Systems (EWS).
iii. Train and re- train on Basic First Aid skills.
iv. Adapt disaster management strategies to meet local needs and peculiarities.
v. Encourage community paticipation in activities that will enhance
environmental changes and adaptations.
2.4 Disaster Response Units (DRUs) in Disaster Management
DRUs shall be assigned in designated military formations located across the Country by the Defence headquarters and Ministry of Defence. They shall have the mandate of providing specialized services in humanitarian assistance during disasters as may be requested by the President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria in line with established Guidelines for Call-out of the Armed Forces in Aid to Civil Authorities. The DRUs shall work closely with NEMA and SEMA of the disaster affected state.
2.4.1 Roles of DRUs in Disaster Management
Amongst other things, the DRUs shall perform the following functions in disaster management:- Provision of infrastructural support (communications, technical equipment and manpower) for command and control.
1. Search & Rescue and relief operations at disaster sites.
2. Provision of medical care at the incident site and evacuation of casualties.
3. Render fire fighting services in conjuction with fire service institutions
4. Render logistics support for transportation.
5. Setting up and running of relief camps when necessary.
6. Openning of routes and construction/repair of roads and bridges to enable relief teams/materials to reach affected areas.
7. Repair, maintain and run essential services especially at the initial stages of Disaster Occurence.
8. Assist in evacuation of people to safer places before and after the disaster.
9. Provide escorts for men, material and security of installations.
10. Assist in the management and handling of International relief, if requested by the civil administration.
11. Provide psychological counselling to the people affected by the disaster.
12. Provide security for people and property within the area affected by disaster.
13. Any other activity that will enhance effective disaster management in the country.
2.5 Volunteers in Disaster Management
Volunteers in Disaster Management shall be individuals or groups with specialized or basic training in different areas of disaster management. Volunteerism refers to rendering of time, skills, experience or resources for the advancement of disaster management. They shall be established by NEMA, SEMA and LEMA to tap into the huge knowldege and experiences of specialised skills of persoonnel living or working in the country.
2.5.1 Roles of Volunteers in Disaster Management
Volunteers in disaster management shall perform the following functions, amongst others:-
1. Assist in search and rescue operations in case of disaster.
2. Function as emergency personnel that can render specialised assistance to disaster survivors.
3. Give useful information of places prone to both human-induced and natural disasters.
4. Partake in simulation exercises.
5. Help in direct distribution of releif materials in emergency situations.
6. Take part in activities that will lead to disaster risk reduction measures in the community.
Volunteers shall perform their duties in an organized manner and under the supervision of and guidance of NEMA, SEMA and LEMA in preparing for, preventing and responding to disasters. They shall be atleast trained in Basic Life Support, disaster preparedness and response, relief, prevention, mitigation, contingency planning, recovery, capacity assessment, water and sanitation.
2.6 Guidelines and Documents to be disseminated
1. NEMA Establishment Act
2. SEMA Law of Establishment
3. LEMA Bye-Law of Establishment
4. Guidelines for Call Out Of the Members of the Armed Forces in Aid to Civil Authorit
5. Volunteer Administration Guide.
THEMATIC AREA 2
This Thematic Area establishes the Framework for coordinating the different stakeholders involved in disaster management. It explains the process of harmonizing or bringing together diverse activities to achieve the goal and objectives of disaster management. The Thematic Area also describes required actions for harmonizing individual and organizational activities to maximize impact and achieve synergy.
National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA) shall be the coordinating body at the National level, while the State Emergency Management Agency (SEMA) and the Local Emergency Management Authority (LEMA) shall be the coordinating body at the State and Local Government levels respectively. Coordination process shall be time bound, participatory, impartial and transparent in order to achieve the best possible results and impact.
Effective coordination in disaster management shall be multi-sectoral, multi-resource and multi-disciplinary. This shall, amongst other things, reduce gaps in services to affected population; duplication of efforts; inappropriate assistance; inefficient use of resources; bottlenecks; impediments and slow reactions to changing conditions.
This Thematic Area shall have the following objectives:
1. Develop horizontal and vertical coordination strategies to take care of synergy at the three tiers of Government and among stakeholders.
2. Enhance efficient and effective administration of disaster management activities and operations.
3.2 Types of Coordination in Disaster Management
There are two types of disaster management coordination – strategic and operational.
3.2.1 Strategic Coordination shall support unity of efforts in implementation, and be concerned with the vertical and horizontal coordination mechanisms of the overall direction of disaster management structures. It shall involve the integration of emergency programs with other activities of government and amongst stakeholders from the community to Federal level. (See Coordination diagram).
a) Vertical Coordination: shall define the relationship among NEMA, SEMA, LEMA and community structures. This shall refer to NEMA, through the NEMA Zonal Offices coordinating the activities and operations of SEMA, LEMA and community structures. It shall also refer to SEMA coordinating the activities and operations of LEMA and community structures, and reporting to NEMA. At the local government level, LEMA shall coordinate the activities and operations of community structures, and report to SEMA.
b) Horizontal Coordination: shall define the relationship among disaster management stakeholders at different levels of government. This shall refer to NEMA, taking the lead in mobilizing and collaborating with relevant Federal Ministries, Departments and Agencies (MDAs), DRUs, Police, Paramilitary, International and Local Non-governmental organizations, and development partners. At the state level, horizontal coordination refers to SEMA taking the lead in mobilizing and collaborating with relevant State Ministries, Departments and Agencies (MDAs), DRUs, Police, Paramilitary, Civil Society Organizations (CSOs), state branches of International organizations, and development partners. At the Local Government level, horizontal coordination refers to LEMA taking the lead in mobilizing and collaborating with relevant Departments and Authorities (DAs), Police, Paramilitary, Local Non-governmental organizations, and development partners
The different coordination mechanisms (Vertical and Horizontal) shall include the setting of agreed goals, and allocation of tasks and responsibilities according to mandates and capacities.
Horizontal and Vertical Coordination in Disaster Management
Fig 3.1. Horizontal and Vertical Coordination of Disaster Management in Nigeria
3.2.2 Operational Coordination: shall involve the procedure for translating disaster management plans to field level operations and activities. Coordinating bodies shall adopt relevant approaches based on the different thematic areas of disaster management (Risk Assessment; Risk Reduction; Preapredness, Prevention and Mitigation; Response; and Recovery).
The tools for operatonal coordination in disaster management shall include:-
1. Vulnerability and Capacity Analysis (VCA).
2. Emergency Operations Center (EOC).
a) Vulnerability and Capacity Analysis (VCA) shall be the methodology for investigation and information gathering on hazards, vulnerability and available coping capacity of communities which shall be depicted spatially with the Vulnerability Risk Assessment Mapping (VRAM). The VCA and VRAM shall enhance stakeholders operational coordination in the following ways:
1. Disaster Risk Assesment: It shall help stakeholders to understand the nature and level of risks that vulnerable people face; where these risks come from; who will be worst affected; and what means are available at all levels to reduce the risks.
2. Disaster Risk Reduction: It shall help stakeholders to take informed decision on types of activities required to sensitize and create awareness for building the resilience of the vulnerable communities.
3. Disaster Preparedness, Prevention and Mitigation: It shall provide stakeholders with data for implementing activities and deploying strategies for preparing, preventing and mitigating disasters.
4. Disaster Recovery: It shall provide stakeholders with data required for developing and implementing rehabilitation and reintegration plans and programmes.
b) Emergency Operation Centers (EOCs)
The EOC shall be the structure that provides justification for the adoption of Incident Command System (ICS) as a management mechanism in operational coordination of disaster response. It shall be established at NEMA, SEMA and LEMA levels to lead disaster reponse (see EOC diagram Fig 2.2). EOC shall operate at the three levels, namely Strategic (Gold level), Operation (Silver level) and Tactical (Bronze level) and shall have the following structure:
1. Head of EOCs: The Director General (NEMA), The Executive Secretary of SEMAs and the Head of LEMAs shall operate at Gold level as head EOCs at the National, State and Local Government levels respectiviely.
2. Watch Directors: Every EOC shall have Watch Directors at Silver level. They shall be appointed from relevant stakeholders and provided with information from the Incident Commander.
3. Incident Commander: The Incident Commander shall head a coordination system that operates at Bronze level. He/She shall be a representative of the Lead Agency in a disaster event and shall be responsible for on-site coordination of Operations, Logistics, Planning, Finance and Administration sectors. Lead Agency hereinafter refers to the institution that has primary role and responsbility for responding or managing specific disaster.
The Incident Command System (ICS)
The Incident Command System (ICS) shall be the framework for on-site Operations (fig 3.3). It shall:
1. Integrate a combination of facilities, equipment, personnel, procedures and communications from various organizations operating within the EOC structure.
2. Ensure effective and efficient incident management.
3.3 Implementation Strategies and Activities for Effective Coordination in Disaster Management
NEMA, SEMA and LEMA shall implement strategies and activities for effective and efficient coordination in disaster management which, shall include:
3.3.1 Establishment of relationship with stakeholders and sharing common understanding on problems and solutions.
These shall include:
1. Identifying stakeholders that are relevant to disaster management.
2. Appointment of disaster management desk officers in stakeholders’ institutions.
3. Organizing regular meetings between and among disaster management stakeholders to share experience and review strategies.
4. Conducting workshops, seminars and training programmes for stakeholders capacity development.
5. Conducting regular public awareness, advocacy and education programmes.
6. Conducting VCA to determine hazards, vulnerabilities and community coping capacities
7. Conducting contingency planning and developing Contingency Plans
8. Building scenarios and conducting regular simulation exercises among stakeholders.
9. Identifying and recruiting volunteers at all levels and building their capacity for disaster management.
10. publishing periodic reports on hazards, vulnerabilties and disaster management actvities within their areas of jurisdictions.
11. Reviewing plans, programmes and strategies regularly.
3.3.2 Establishment of functional lines of communication amongst stakeholders.
These shall include:
1. Developing relationship with relevant media stakeholders.
2. Developing a database (telephone numbers, e-mails and contact addresses) of focal agencies and persons and integrating it into National, State and Local Databanks in NEMA, SEMA and LEMA respectively.
3. Developing a database of available equipment that can be used for disaster management.
4. Monitoring and updating information on state of preparedness of stakeholders.
5. Developing MOUs and having mutual understanding with stakeholders on their participation and deployment of their equipment during emergencies.
6. Establishing affordable, accessible and secured Emergency Call Centers (ECCs) at all levels of government.
7. Identifying effective communication facilities, including close user group and Nigeria police radio- net for long range communication.
8. Liaison with telecommunication network providers for use of their cell broadcast facilities.
9. Updating database regularly.
3.4 Guidelines and Documents to be disseminated
1. NEMA Establishment Act
2. SEMA Law of Establishment
3. LEMA Bye-Law of Establishment
4. Search and Rescue and Epidemic Evacuation Plan (SAREEP)
5. Vulnerabilty Capacity Analyses (VCA) of Nigeria
6. Vulnerability Risk Assesment Mapping of Nigeria.
THEMATIC AREA 3
DISASTER RISK ASSESSMENT
Disaster risk assessment shall be the first step in planning an effective disaster management. It shall serve as a guide in all efforts at federal, state, and local levels for disaster risk reduction, and preparedness, prevention and mitigation. Disaster risk assessment shall examine the likelihood of expected disaster events and their outcomes in vulnerable communities across the country. This shall involve investigating related hazards and conditions of vulnerability that increase the chances of loss. Therefore, disaster risk assessments shall be undertaken to:
1. Anticipate and plan for known hazards or disaster to prevent losses and limit endangering impacts
2. Ensure that development initiatives maximize their vulnerability reduction outcomes.
Disaster risk shall refer to the likelihood of harm or loss due to the action of natural or human-induced hazards and other threats to vulnerable structures, services, areas, communities and households.
This thematic area shall have the following objectives:
1. Establish a uniform approach for assessing, planning and monitoring disaster risks at all levels of Government.
2. Provide the basis for disaster risk reduction; and preparedness, prevention and mitigation interventions undertaken by stakeholders at all levels of government.
4.2 Disaster Risk Assessment Planning
4.2.1 Disaster risk assessment planning shall be conducted by stakeholders at all levels. Relevant stakeholders shall execute systematic disaster risk assessments planning:
1. Prior to the implementation of disaster risk reduction, preparedness or recovery programme at all levels of governance.
2. As an integral component of the planning phase for large scale housing, infrastructure or commercial and industrial developments in the country.
3. As an integral component of the planning phase for significant initiatives that affect the natural environment
4. When the social, economic, infrastructural, environmental, climatic or other indicators suggest changing patterns that increase the risk or likelihood of significant disaster impacts.
5. To determine priority disaster risks relevant to their functional areas.
4.2.2 Stages in Disaster Risk Assessment Planning
Disaster risk assessment planning shall include identification and consultation with relevant stakeholders for the:-
1. Design of assessment tools,
2. Application of assessment tools for data collection,
3. Analysis and interpretation of findings, and,
4. Documentation of findings.
4.3 Disaster Risk Assessment Plan
Disaster risk assessment plan shall be supported with good Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) systems to perform the following:
1. Effective disaster risk management and risk reduction planning
2. Identifying potential threats that can undermine developments and sustainability,
3. Enhancing the incorporation of appropriate disaster risk reduction measures into development project design and implementation
4. Ensuring sustainable development planning
5. Identifying high-risk locations, periods and conditions
6. Activating timely preparedness and response actions.
4.4 Undertaking Disaster Risk Assessments
A disaster risk assessment shall be undertaken at all levels of governance for specific hazards or disaster that:
1. Are likely to affect more than one state, due to their scale and magnitude
2. Are likely to occur in most states and may require federal and other support and intervention due to their recurrent magnitude (high and medium).
3. Are of high magnitude and low frequency (for example, desertification, oil spills earthquake, toxic waste, gas flaring, ocean surge, earth tremor, landslide, etc).
4. Occur infrequently or seasonally (for example bush fires, flooding) and have the potential to cause severe loss, and require levels of specialized support that might not be available at lower levels of governance.
5. Affect neighbouring countries and have consequences for Nigeria, such as, unplanned cross-border movements, events that require humanitarian or other relief assistance, etc.
4.5 Steps in Disaster Risk Assessment
4.5.1. Disaster risk assessment shall fulfil the following processes:
1. Identifying and analyzing potential hazards and/or threats
2. Assessing the conditions of vulnerability that increase the chance of loss
3. Identifying elements-at-risk such as, environmental, human, infrastructural, agricultural, industrial, economic and other elements that are exposed to a hazard, and are at risk of loss.
4. Determining the level of risk for different situations and conditions
5. Helping to set priorities for action
4.5.2. Disaster risk assessment shall be deemed reliable when the following questions are satisfactorily answered:
1. How frequently can one expect an incident or a disaster to happen?
2. Which area, communities or households are most at risk?
3. What are the likely impacts?
4. What are the vulnerabilities, or environmental, structural and socio-economic risk factors that ncrease the severity of the threat?
5. What capabilities or resources exist to manage the risk?
6. Is the risk becoming more serious?
7. Is the risk undermining development progress in the areas, communities and households it affects?
8. Is the management of the risk a development priority?
9. Does the risk have any cultural implication?
10. Are there any other significant risks?
4.5.3. The stages for assessing disaster risk shall be as follows:
Stage 1: Identifying specific disaster risk to be assessed
Stage 2: Analysing disaster risk concerned
Stage 3: Monitoring disaster risks.
Stage 4: Evaluating disaster risk assessed, updating and disseminating information to all stakeholders.
18.104.22.168 Identifying specific disaster risk(s)
This shall include:
1. Identifying the hazard
2. Describing the hazard (causes, frequency, magnitude, speed of onset, affected area and duration .
22.214.171.124 Analysing the disaster risk(s)
This shall include:
1. Describing and quantifying vulnerability.
2. Estimating likely losses resulting from the impact of hazard and disaster.
3. Providing relevant hazard, vulnerability and risk maps.
4. Identifying relevant capacities, methods and resources available to manage the risk.
126.96.36.199 Monitoring Disaster Risks
All stakeholders shall have monitoring systems in place that are relevant to their specific functional responsibilities. This shall include monitoring of risks to ensure:
1. effectiveness of disaster risk reduction initiatives,
2. changing patterns and new developments in risk profiles,
188.8.131.52 Evaluating disaster risk assessed, updating and disseminating information to all stakeholders.
This shall include:
1. Estimating the level of risk associated with a specific threat to determine whether the resulting risk is a priority or not.
2. Prioritization of disaster risks when there are multiple threats to assess.
3. Determining priority high risk people, households, areas, communities and infrastructures.
4. Involving holistic and integrated planning and implementation in focussed disaster risk reduction initiatives.
5. Updating and disseminating risk assessment information.
4.6 Disaster Risk Assessment Monitoring Tools
The following tools shall be adopted in monitoring disaster risk(s) by all relevant stakeholders:
4.6.1 Hazard tracking: This shall:
1. Monitor the physical phenomena that can trigger disaster events.
2. Provide early warning information on approaching adverse conditions.
3. Track the seasonal build up of hazards and disasters.
4.6.2 Vulnerability monitoring: This shall:
1. Track the ability of areas, communities, households, critical services and natural environments to resist and withstand external threats.
2. Provide census data and information on changing social vulnerability patterns in high risk communities.
3. Routinely collect information on special surveys.
4. Track local capabilities to absorb recurrent shocks and stresses from disaster.
5. Track local capacities to resist and recover from threats.
4.6.3 Disaster event tracking: This shall:
1. Monitor changing patterns in disaster.
2. Monitor frequencies of disaster incidents.
3. Establish Early Warning Systems to avert the impending disaster.
4.7 Stakeholders Roles and Responsibilities in Disaster Risk Assessment.
4.7.1 NEMA, SEMA and LEMA shall, within their jurisdiction:
1. identify specialists, including research institutions, the public, and private sector to be involved in Disaster Risk Assessment.
2. define the terms of reference in Disaster Risk Assessment.
3. provide feedback mechanism and define consultation, skills transfer and capacity building processes.
4. collaborate with relevant stakeholders to validate the methods and findings of disaster risk assessments, in their areas of jurisdiction.
5. shall be validated by the relevant authorities before any implementation processes.
6. certified that field consultations have been carried out to authenticate findings.
4.7.2 NEMA, SEMA, LEMA and other stakeholders shall have clear mechanisms for:
1. Assessing, consolidating and updating relevant hazard and vulnerability information on disaster risk specific to their functional areas.
2. Partnering with the media to disseminate information to relevant stakeholders and the general public in their domain.
1. Developing and reviewing their Vulnerability Capacity Analyses (VCAs) to determine if risk conditions have changed detrimentally.
4.8 Guidelines to be disseminated
1. i. Vulnerability Capacity Analysis (VCAs)
THEMATIC AREA 4
DISASTER RISK REDUCTION
Disaster risk reduction shall involve efforts aimed at minimizing the potential impact of disaster on humans, socio-economic activities and the environment. It shall be the integration of holistic disaster strategies into policy development for solving broad range social, economic and environmental problems. Disaster risk reduction shall:
1. integrate disaster management planning as a strategic priority.
1. Outline approaches for scoping and developing disaster risk reduction plans, projects and programmes in collaboration with relevant stakeholders.
2. Address the integration of disaster risk reduction initiatives into strategic disaster management structures and processes.
3. focus on the implementation and monitoring of disaster management programmes and activities.
4. Establish mechanisms that ensure transparency and accountability in the utilization of resources
This thematic area shall have the following objectives:
i. Raisin community awareness on natural and human-induced disasters
1. Ensuring the commitment of government at all levels including stakeholders to reduce risk to man, community life, social and economic infrastructure and environmental resources
2. Increasing community participation in planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of disaster risk reduction activities, and strengthening partnerships to broaden disaster risk reduction networks.
3. Building community resilience and improving community capacity to cope with the incidence of disasters peculiar to their environment
4. Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Reduction into educational curriculum at all levels.
5. Ensuring effective and workable contingency plan at all levels towards disaster risk reduction in collaboration with relevant stakeholders.
6. Ensuring effective community based early warning systems
5.2 Disaster Risk Reduction Planning
NEMA, SEMA and LEMA shall collaborate with other stakeholders to ensure that coherent and relevant disaster risk reduction planning is undertaken at all levels, including the community. This shall ensure that the State and Local Government disaster risk management plans are consistent with the National disaster risk reduction management plan.
5.2.1. Disaster risk reduction planning shall:
1. Involve the participation of all relevant stakeholders, and establish basic institutional arrangements for disaster risk reduction.
2. Define appropriate vision and approaches to disaster risk reduction.
3. Specify appropriate arrangements for disaster risk reduction and contingency planning.
4. Establish a coordinated information, education and communication system for disaster risk reduction.
5. Identify and establish appropriate initiatives for effective public enlightenment programmes.
6. Develop sustainable capacity building initiatives for disaster risk reduction
7. Define funding sources
5.3 Disaster Risk Management Plan
NEMA, SEMA and LEMA shall be responsible for facilitating the development of Disaster Risk Management Plan (DMP) in their areas of jurisdiction. The emergency management agencies shall collaborate with relevant stakeholders to develop, review and update DMPs in their areas of jurisdiction.
5.3.1 Disaster risk managment plan shall:
1. make disaster reduction a development priority with strong institutional basis
2. Improve identification, assessment, monitoring of disaster risk and early warning
3. use knowledge to build safer and more resilient communities
4. Reduce underlying risks
5. strengthen preparedness for effective response
5.3.2 Principles of Disaster Risk Management plan.
Disaster Risk Management plan shall be based on the following principles:
1. Establishment of clear goals and targets linked to implementation, monitoring and evaluation criteria to ensure achievements of set objectives.
2. Using researches, disaster risk assessment findings and VCA for focused efforts on risk reduction.
3. Establishment of relevant stakeholders and disciplinary teams to address disaster risk reduction programmes.
4. Ensuring comprehensive community involvement in disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation.
5. Planning for changing risks conditions and uncertainty due to socio-economic and climate change factors.
6. Ensuring community ownership and sustainability of disaster risk reduction programmes, plans and activities.
5.3.3 The VCA and Contingency plan shall be used as tools for disaster risk management plan. The VCA shall be used as a diagnostic instrument for providing analytical data to support informed decisions on the planning and implementation of risk reduction measures. It shall have the capacity for identifying:
1. National Priority Disaster risks
2. State Priority Disaster risks
3. Local Government and community Disaster risks
5.3.4 The development of the disaster risk management plan by communities, LGAs, States and Federal government shall, with the aid of VCA, carry out the following activities:
i) Build local capacity to efficiently and effectively identify, develop, manage and sustain disaster risk management through the use of appropriate tools and available resources.
ii) Assess existing and required capability with respect to prevailing and foreseeable hazards
iii) provide a forum for the exchange of knowledge and experience in the areas of vulnerability and risk profile development.
iv) Strengthen local capability in utilization of available resources.
v) Identify and provide support to States and local governments for the development of vulnerability and risk profile.
5.3.5. The contingency plan shall be a tool of disaster risk management that provide detail information on:
1. General situation and scenario
2. Strategic objectives of intervention
3. Relevant stakeholders required for intervention, and their roles and responsibilities
4. Priorities and activities of interevention
5. Resources needs and capacities relevant to intervention, such as, facilities, personnel, funding and logistics services
6. Feedbacks and future actions in intervention.
5.4. Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Reduction
Disaster risk reduction shall be mainstreamed into developmental efforts at all levels of governance. This shall be integrated, amongst other things, into:
5.4.1 Spatial development planning:
NEMA, SEMA, LEMA and other stakeholders, shall ensure the inclusion of spatial planners, Geographic Information System (GIS) experts in all phases of disaster risk reduction plans and programmes.
5.4.2 National Development Plan.
Disaster risk reduction strategies shall be integrated into governmental medium and long term goals of the National Development Plan.
5.4.3 Educational Curriculum
Disaster risk reduction strategies shall be incorporated into education curriculum at all levels (Primary, Secondary and Tertiary) to inculcate the required knowledge, attitude, and skills in the youth.
5.5 Disaster Risk Reduction Mechanism
The critical components of effective disaster risk reductions shall be the various regulations, standards, by-laws and other legal enforcement instruments. The Federal, State and Local Governments shall ensure adherence to the legal enforcement instruments, some of which include:
1. Land use regulations.
2. Urban planning and development standards.
3. Standard for Environmental Impact Assessments.
4. Building codes.
5. Fire codes
6. Enabling Acts/Laws/Bye-Laws of the Legislature on Health and Environmental issues.
7. Relevant International Conventions and Treaties signed by the Government of Nigeria e.t.c.
5.6 Guidelines to be disseminated
1. National Action Plan for Disaster Risk Reduction
2. State Disaster Risk Management Plan
3. Local Government Disaster Risk Management Plan
4. Community Disaster Risk Management Plan
5. Vulnerability Capacity Analysis of Nigeria
6. Relevant regulations, standards, codes and by-laws
7. National Educational curriculum
THEMATIC AREA 5
DISASTER PREPAREDNESS / PREVENTION /MITIGATION
This thematic area shall describe the principles and measures that will help in planning, implementing, monitoring and evaluating activities and programmes for disaster prevention, preparedness and mitigation at all levels. It shall rely on disaster risk management plans (DMP), and emphasize the use of international best practices to ensure that effective and appropriate measures are in place to save lives, sustain livelihood and strengthen safety-net.
This thematic area shall have the following objectives:
1. Reducing or eliminating the potential impact or damage that could be caused by hazards on health, lives, property, infrastructure, environment and services.
2. Mobilizing relevant stakeholders for effective disaster preparedness, prevention and mitigation activities.
3. Implementing integrated and appropriate measures in harnessing resources towards disaster prevention, preparedness and mitigation.
4. Developing and sustaining national, state, local and community based early warning systems.
6.2 Disaster Preparedness
Disaster preparedness shall involve measures taken in advance to ensure effective response to the impact of disasters; timely and effective early warning; and the evacuation of people and property from threatened locations.
6.2.1 Disaster Preparedness shall enable NEMA, SEMA, LEMA and other relevant stakeholders to:
1. develop emergency plans,
2. build capacity at all levels and sectors,
3. educate communities at risk
4. provide regular monitoring and evaluation
5. ensure availability of resources.
6.2.2 Disaster Preparedness strategies shall include the following:
1. Planning for threats and emergencies, such as, heavy rainfall; flooding; strong winds; bush, market, formal or informal settlements fires; communicable disease outbreaks; conflicts, among others.
2. Forecasting and planning for potential threats.
3. Establishing clear information dissemination processes to alert vulnerable communities of impending threats, such as, potential outbreak of epidemics and pests.
4. Specifying evacuation procedures, routes and sites in advance of expected emergencies: including the evacuation camps, such as schools in areas exposed to flash-floods.
5. Disseminating clear communication procedure and protocols in advance for different emergency situations.
6. Updating Contingency plans for specific threats.
7. Conducting inventory of available disaster management equipment/supplies at all levels, such as, fire fighting vehicles, ambulance, recovery vehicles, etc.
8. viii. Creating Geo-referenced terrain database with the satellite imageries and topographical maps for disaster management and risk reduction.
6.3 Disaster Prevention
Disaster Prevention shall involve all actions that provide ‘outright avoidance’ of the adverse impact of natural and human induced disasters.
6.3.1 The Strategies for Disaster Prevention shall include:
1. i. Afforestration and reforestation.
2. ii. Creating enabling environment for the use of alternative fuel or energy to reduce the use of fire wood.
3. iii. Advocacy and sensitization
4. iv. Capacity Building
5. v. Forecasting and planning
6. vi. Enforcement of policies and procedures
7. vii. Coordination and collaboration with relevant stakeholders
8. Monitoring and Evaluation
9. ix. Community participation
6.3.2 Disaster Prevention Activities shall include:
1. i. Ensuring sensitization and awareness creation, through formal and informal media. Formal media shall be print and electronic, while informal media shall include Traditional Rulers, Town Criers, Religious Institutions, e.t.c.
2. ii. Encouraging tree planting, grass seeding and construction of levees, embankment and channelization to prevent flooding
3. iii. Encouraging the use of alternative fuel or energy
4. iv. Encouraging the use of fire resistant materials for construction;
5. v. Discouraging and penalising indiscriminate burning of bushes;
6. vi. Removing inflammable materials around buildings
7. vii. Providing fire extinguishers in public and private buildings.
8. Ensuring regular weather forecast, and disseminating weather information.
9. ix. Encouraging the practice of re-forestation by relevant government agencies.
10. x. Ensuring proper land management, and channelization of rivers and streams.
11. xi. Enforcing safety regulations, codes, legislations and laws.
12. xii. Ensuring construction and maintenance of roads with shoulders.
13. Ensuring periodic clearing of drainages.
14. xiv. Establishing peace and conflict resolution mechanisms in various communities by the government, private sector and CSOs.
15. xv. Ensuring immunization against targeted diseases.
16. Ensuring constant disease surveillance by relevant government officials.
17. Improving sanitation practices in the communities
18. Enforcing relevant laws and legislations, and ensuring compliance with Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), building codes, etc.
.4 Disaster Mitigation
Disaster mitigation shall refer to measures for minimizing the destructive and distruptive effects of hazards and reducing its magnitude. They shall be structural and non-structural measures that limit the adverse impact of natural and human-induced disasters on vulnerable areas, communities and households. These efforts shall target people who are at risk, by reducing their vulnerability to specific hazards and threats.
6.4.1 The Strategies for Disaster Mitigation shall include:
1. integration of mitigation activities into development programs at all levels, such as, observing speed limit, tree planting, installing effective and functional fire alarms in buildings, etc
2. comprehensive costs and benefits analysis of possible measures
3. short, medium and long term plan to sustain activities
4. national action plan to support and empower vulnerable communities
5. promotion of participatory planning and management of activities with vulnerable communities
6. strengthening transportation system
7. strengthening public safety communications system among stakeholders
8. strengthening Emergency Alert Systems at all levels of governance
9. targeting assistance to vulnerable communities
10. restoring valuable coastal resources,
11. protecting vital energy infrastructure
12. enhancing public health response
13. Enforcing Public Health Laws
14. development of appropriate evacuation plans.
15. strengthening of vertical and horizontal coordination among all stakeholders.
6.4.2 The activities for disaster mitigation shall include:
i. conduct orientation and sensitization, such as, dangers of pipeline vandalism, over-grazing, deforestation, desertification, armed brigandage.
1. ii. facilitate and promote implementation of various insurance policies for risk transfer.
2. iv. develop public safety communications system
3. v. develop Emergency Alert Systems
4. vi. contingency stockpiling of food, non-food, reproductive health supplies and medical equipment.
5. vii. conduct training and simulation exercises
6. conduct stakeholders meeting
1. Build capacity and increase awareness
6.5 Tools for Disaster Preparedness, Prevention and Mitigation
Some of the major tools for disaster preparedness, prevention and mitigation shall include Early Warning System (EWS), and contingency planning.
6.5.1 Early warning systems shall be designed to alert areas, communities, households and individuals of impending or imminent significant disaster events. It shall enable vulnerable groups to take necessary steps to avoid or reduce the risk and prepare for an effective response.
184.108.40.206 The strategies for early warning system shall include:
1. i. increasing Risk Knowledge on EWS
2. ii. enhancing EWS Technology
3. iii. improving the transmission mechansm
4. iv. enhancing the capabilities of relevant stakeholders that have responsibility for promoting early action
5. v. promoting community participation
220.127.116.11 The activities for early warning shall include:
1. i. Developing sustainable Early Warning System at federal, state, local and community levels.
2. ii. Establishing community emergency alerts.
3. iii. Build capacity of stakeholders and vulnerable communities on early action.
4. iv. Establishing monitoring mechanism.
5. v. Conducting air, water and land patrol.
6. vi. Ensuring comprehensive and timely hazard survellaince information flow at all levels
7. vii. Creating community awareness on hazard, vulnerability and risks.
6.6 Guidelines to be disseminated
1. i. Multi-Disciplinary work plan on Early Warning Systems on Epidemics.
2. ii. Disaster Risk Reduction Action Plan
3. iii. National Drought and Desertification Policy
4. iv. National Flood and Soil Erosion Policy
5. v. National Policy on Health, Safety and Environment (HSE)
6. vi. Other relevant Agencies’ plans on Early Warning